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Family Members 8051 Microcontrollers Introduction & Basics
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8 Bit 8051 Microcontroller Family Models :
Atmel, NXP, Philips, 8051, 8052, 89C51, 89C52, 89S51, 89s52, 89C1051, 89C1051, 89C2051, AT89C4051, AT89S8252,l AT89C1051, AT89C2051, AT89C4051,P89C51RB+, P89C51RC+, P89C51RD+, P89C51RB2Hxx, P89C51RC2Hxx, P89C51RD2Hxx, P89C660, P89C662, P89C664, P89C668, P89C669, P89C51RA2xx, P89C51RB2xx, P89C51RC2xx, P89C51RD2xx, P89C60X2, P89C61X2,P89LV51RB2, P89LV51RC2, P89LV51RD2, P89V51RB2, P89V51RC2, P89V51RD2, P89V660, P89V662, P89V664.
 
About 8 Bit 8051 Microcontrollers Family :
A digital computer or embedded application consists three most important components the Central Processing Unit (CPU), program, data memory and Input/Output system. The role of the CPU is to control the flow of data and information among the various components of the system and also processes the data by performing digital operations into the system. Much part of the application is processed in the Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) within the CPU. A microprocessor is a CPU that is compacted into a single-chip semiconductor device. Microprocessors are general-purpose semiconductor devices, suitable all kinds of embedded applications. A personal computer which is built using microprocessor is defined as microcomputer. A microcontroller is a system on chip basically a computer built into a single chip. Microcontrollers are complete unit of computer embedded within an application. For example, microcontrollers in automobile are used as engine controllers and controlling other parts of the car.
 
Basics 8051 Family :
The 8051 core is the very first microcontroller device of the MCS-51 family developed by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970s. The 8051 microcontrollers family with its all member devices share the largest part of the market, estimated to be about 40%, among the other microcontroller architectures in the market.
Here we will discuss the the architecture of the 8051 family of the microcontrollers. 
 
8051 Microcontrollers Family Architecture :
The 8051 Microcontroller Family Architecture The basic architecture of the 8051 family of microcontrollers is based on the MCS-51 architecture, or sometimes simply as MCS-51. The 8051 are the 8 bit microcontrollers. They are capable of addressing 64K of program memory and a separate 64K of data memory. The 8051 microcontrollers has 4K of code memory internal implemented as on-chip Read Only Memory (ROM).  The 8051 has 128 bytes of internal Random Access Memory (RAM). The 8051 has two timer/counters, a serial port, 4 general purpose parallel input/output ports, and interrupt control logic with five sources of interrupts. The 8051 has various Special Function Registers (SFR), which are used to control and data registers for on-chip facilities. The SFRs also include the accumulator, the B register, and the Program Status Word (PSW), which has the CPU flags.
 
 Family Members of 8051 Microcontrollers : 
 In 1981, Intel Corporation introduced an 8-bit microcontroller called the 8051. This microcontroller had 128 bytes of RAM, 4K bytes of on-chip ROM, two timers, one serial port, and four ports (each 8-bits wide) all on a single chip. Here are the various family members of the 8051 microcontrollers and their internal specifications and characteristics.
 
AT89C51 - 8-bit Microcontroller with 4K Bytes Flash
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout.
 
Features
• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products
• 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Two 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Six Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
 
 
AT89C52 8-bit Microcontroller with 8K Bytes Flash
The AT89C52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full-duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM.
 
Features
• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products
• 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
• Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
 
AT89S51 8-bit Microcontroller with 4K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
The AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash memory. The AT89S51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next external interrupt or hardware reset.
 
Features
• Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
• 4K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Two 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Six Interrupt Sources
• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
• Watchdog Timer
• Dual Data Pointer
• Power-off Flag
• Fast Programming Time
• Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
• Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option
 
 
AT89S52 8-bit Microcontroller with 8K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

Features
• Compatible with MCS®-51 Products
• 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
• Three-level Program Memory Lock
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
• Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
• Watchdog Timer
• Dual Data Pointer
• Power-off Flag
• Fast Programming Time
• Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)
• Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option